Example of Internet Censorship & Regulating

Internet

Informational video of “THE NEW INTERNET”

Assuming that the government take control over the internet by regulating laws and prosecuting citizens who don’t abide by them I do believe that our Internet safe haven would be much more profound. Our government would simulate the Chinese government where they do not have access to a lot of western things on the Internet. China is a great example of censoring the Internet. In a weird way the Chinese government have strict control over their citizens.

I took a class my sophomore year and learned about Chinese censorship. I thought everyone in the world had accessed to the same the across the World Wide Web but to my surprise, I learned that China do not. China has a strong firewall which blocks access to the western countries. In April of 2014 the Chinese government launched campaigns to clean up the Internet, to eradicate rumors, porn, and other supposedly harmful information and media.  Besides the strict control of foreign cultural content, the Chinese government has also developed various restrictive measures, such as monitoring online chatting, deleting blog posts and employing human censors to strengthen its control of the Internet. Reading more about China’s censorship critics, say China’s Internet filtering system is “the most sophisticated in the world.”

Though Facebook and Twitter are not allowed in China, Chinese versions of social networking sites Microblog for Twitter, Renren for Facebook, and Youku for Youtube, are widely used by Chinese citizens to express their views, communicate, and share their beliefs. Netizens are aware that Web pages and postings with liberal discussions are either suspended or taken down (Peng, 2016). With the intensity of surveillance and a Chinese Internet separated from the world, Chinese fans’ online participatory activities both resemble and differ from those of their Western counterparts (D’Jaen, 2008). I do feel like its hard to regulate the Internet its either you censor it all or none at all.

The U.S censors some things but it seem like they don’t do enough of censoring or regulating the content on the internet.

Terrorists use the Internet just like every one else. In fact, thanks to its strength as a communicative tool, the Internet is particularly valuable for militant groups, which can exploit it in a variety of ways including the planning of operations, establishing communications, circulation of propaganda, training and recruiting new members, and raising funds. Online tools are particularly effective for propaganda purposes as they permit these groups to bypass media gatekeepers and engage directly with their supporters (Argomaniz, 2015). Even if social media has lowered the costs of participation, organization, and communication between supporters of terrorist groups, the key factors in initiating a process of radicalization or joining a violent network remain the influence of a peer group or a significant other a charismatic leader.

Peng, Z. (10/01/2016). Journal of popular culture: Online resistance to censorship among chinese fans of the big bang theory Blackwell Publishing.

D’Jaen, M. D. (2008). Breaching the great firewall of china: Congress overreaches in attacking chinese internet censorship. Seattle University Law Review, 31(2), 327.

Argomaniz, J. (2015). European union responses to terrorist use of the internet. Cooperation and Conflict, 50(2), 250-268.doi:10.1177/0010836714545690

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Punishable activity by terroristic groups

One way the government can move forward in assessing terroristic activity is holding people accountable for their part in spreading terroristic information via the Internet. Looking into laws and really prosecuting people who have broke these laws. Having amendments like free speech and the correlation between that and the use of social media is becoming a problem. The United Stated government should pass a law like the Terrorism Act of 2006 in the United Kingdom. In many other countries acts have been passed to regulate the use of the Internet and the terrorist groups spread of promoting their influences on different people. “In the Netherlands, General Civil Penal Code Article 147c prohibits anyone from spreading information that encourages others to commit terrorist actions. Another provision of that country’s code, Article 147d, prohibits anyone from providing material support to terrorist organizations or recruiting anyone to participate in one. In 2015, Ishaq Ahmed and another man were indicted under Article 147 for pledging to raise money for ISIS to send to fighters in Syria along with other equipment, such as clothes and shoes. Ministers from other European democracies Austria, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, Spain, Latvia, Belgium, and Poland have likewise agreed in principle to work with social media companies to combat terrorists’ persistent, regular, and effective uses of cyberspace” (Tsesis, 2017).

If the Internet can be tightly more regulated and pass different laws, I do believe there would be less “recruitment” for these terrorist attack and less terrorist attacks would happen. Most people that commit these terroristic acts are apart of online terrorist groups with no direct connection with overseas terrorist.

Everything you need to know about the Patriot Act
Cracking down on people who create websites promoting terroristic activity and or condone, post or any way affiliated with those types of behaviors should be prosecuted and serve some type of sentencing. In the USA Patriot Act, it is intended to help government agencies detect and prevent possible acts of terrorism, or sponsorship of terrorist groups. The act comprises 10 categories, called “titles,” these “titles” include enhancing domestic security against terrorism, Enhanced surveillance procedures, Anti-money-laundering to prevent terrorism, border security, removing obstacles to investigating terrorism, victims and families of victims of terrorism, increased information sharing for critical infrastructure protection, terrorism criminal law and improved intelligence (USA Patriot Act, 2010).

After researching the laws on cyber attacks and terrorist punishment for the recruitment of other people I discovered USA Patriot Acts I did not know there were laws in place for that type of activity. Using search engines like Google and Yahoo a civilian can still search for ways to be involved within terrorist groups I do not feel like enough is being done by the government to protect our people from attacks and recruiting members. Not surprisingly, given the fact that offenders in the US were more likely to be terrorist-trained, battle-hardened, and connected to designated terrorist groups, the terror threat in America appears to be greater especially with the access civilians have to the Internet. It makes Terroristic activity more accessible.

Tsesis, A. (2017). Terrorist speech on social media. Vanderbilt Law Review, 70(2), 651-708. Retrieved from https://login.proxy.lib.fsu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1882439229?accountid=4840

USA PATRIOT Act. (2010). Nature Medicine, 16(6), 622. Retrieved from https://login.proxy.lib.fsu.edu/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com.proxy.lib.fsu.edu/ps/i.do?p=EAIM&sw=w&u=tall85761&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE|A228908490&sid=summon&asid=a7ecc9416f6ccf0655224bfc5c3237ef

Insight on Terrorist taking over Youtube

foleyI dislike the use of the Internet by terrorist groups. Videos of ISIS beheading captives are widely circulated video across the Internet. ISIS uses the medium platform of YouTube to upload beheading videos of innocent people that they hold captive. In these videos they allow the captives to say their “final words.” In these final words, the captives are blaming the United States government for their death. The way terrorist groups abuse their power through the Internet is displayed by the content they produce on social media. It is written to seem as though the captives are expressing these thoughts as their own but in all essence it is most likely written by the capturers. One video that was uploaded was of a US journalist. James Foley, an US journalist was doing a story in Syria where he disappeared, most likely abducted by ISIS. Foley and many other journalists who went to Syria to cover the Islamic war magically disappeared. During the beheading video of James Foley, other journalists were shown as a message to the president to put an end to the bombings in Iraq. Foley’s Last Words

These propaganda videos are ways to scare the US and its government with the use of misconstruing the media. Assuming the original beheading video was removed off YouTube. They are then able to use these videos, tweets, Facebook posts and forums into online radicalisation tools, whereby they are able to glamorise ‘extremism’ and make it appear as though fighting with them is ‘cool’ (Awan, 2017). As I researched more on Foley and the beheading video, some believed it was a hoax. The video was a clear visual of someone beheading a person with active images and blood spewing; the authenticity of the video was surprisingly questioned. During my research on Foley and his efforts to report on the Syrian war his extent of getting news coverage of ISIS ultimately caused him his death. ISIS use different media outlets to upload their propagandas. Being that older propagandas are not familiar to me, I highly doubt they were done through the use of social media or media outlets for that matter. It’s sort of like a contradiction. ISIS abduct journalist who are reporting on them. These journalists are doing stories on ISIS and the government who expose them and their militant plan. It is everything ISIS needs in order to try and obtain control or somewhat control of the US government. They could of used these journalist to their advantage and gel them to do reports with insight on why they choose to bomb the US and what views of the American people or government that they dislike the most. Instead of working with the journalists and some how incorporating them in their plan to control the US government. ISIS strategies of instilling fear in the American people are so far their propaganda and they are succeeding in accomplishing their goal.

The Internet is a growing source of information. While there are some electronic versions of other kinds of media, there are also Internet-specific sources. The Internet also provides a forum for the average citizen to voice his or her opinion for the world to hear. With the help of social media sites like Twitter and Facebook, where these terrorist take pride in updating on these platforms to recruit people and help carry out their plans for destruction. As new media technologies and transformations in the way in which images can be produced and circulated increase visual interconnectivity across borders and facilitate new ways of communicating the horrors of war, it becomes increasingly difficult to understand war and violence without taking visual media into account (Friis, 2015). Not only do terrorist organizations use social media platforms to help recruit for their group but they also raise money for their organization and teach people how to recreate and detonate bombs and how to kill a US service person. Also, the terrorist group ISIS use of YouTube to upload beheading videos is increasing in popularity because after the first video of the journalist Foley, there were more videos of different Americans who were abducted in Syria. ISIS especially uses the Internet to manipulate the United States government. They understand the affect of the Internet in the western and how much they use the Internet to research political and global news. Having this type of information easily accessible can sometimes not be helpful because the yearning to want to learn more about these terrorist groups can create an interest. Without the help of the media I do believe terrorist organizations would not be as successful in domestic terrorist attacks by influenced citizens.

References:

FRIIS, S. M. (2015). ‘Beyond anything we have ever seen’: beheading videos and the visibility of violence in the war against ISIS. International Affairs91(4), 725-746.

Awan, I. (2017). Cyber-extremism: Isis and the power of social media. Society, 54(2), 138-149. doi:10.1007/s12115-017-0114-0

Social Media & E-commerce Trends

Genres of web content are produced everyday by people wanting to gain a following or people who are paid to produce content for a company. Still everyone who produces web content have one goal in mind the content is to be accessed by viewers to gain insight on that specific topic or product. There are are two very important genres: social media and electronic commerce. A large portion of the content found on the Web can be classified under one of these two categories. Frances Cairncross claims that communications aspects follow specific trends that can be easily identified. Amid this large list of trends, three of them have roles that can be identified within the previously mentioned web content genres of social media and electronic commerce. These trends, according to Cairncross, can be referred to as ‘fate of location’, ‘improved connections’, and ‘manufacturers as service providers’. The two genres of web content aforementioned, social media and electronic commerce, will be analyzed using Cairncross’s communication trends known as ‘fate of location’, ‘improved connections’, and ‘manufacturers as service providers’ to test the validity of Cairncross’s claims.

 

The first trend, fate of location, is the claim that location is no longer a deciding factor in most business decisions due to on-line capabilities that enable companies to connect with one another anywhere (Bucy, 2005). This trend is very apparent in the web content genre known as electronic commerce. E-commerce can be classified into three categories: consumer-to-consumer, business-to-consumer, and business-to-business (Straubhaar et al., 2013). A great example of a consumer-to-consumer electronic commerce that is familiar to mostly everyone is eBay. Caincross’s fate of location trend is accurately displayed throughout the use of eBay. Location no longer affects the performance of sales by reason of the Internet. While Cairncross’s ‘fate of location’ trend is very evident within electronic commerce, it may not be so obviously used within the web content genre of social media. Because Cairncross’s explanation of the ‘fate of location’ trend specifically mentions businesses, social media seems to be irrelevant. But this trend is again accurate in describing the developments of social media. Many businesses now rely on social media for much of their promotional aspects. The World Wide Web has enabled these businesses to effectively deliver their messages to consumers regardless of their location. Consumers are susceptible to messages from companies worldwide via social media outlets. Social media also facilitates businesses in reaching their target audiences because there certain are demographic-related patterns apparent in media exposure as a whole.

 

The second trend being used, ‘improved connections’, is Cairncross’s idea that most people will soon have access to networks that are all switched, interactive, and broadband (Bucy, 2005, p. 7). This concept means that the Internet can be used to connect users with many others, allow all ends of users to communicate equally, and have top-quality reception of content (Bucy, 2005). This trend can seem very broad and thus applicable to both types of web content genres being analyzed. Social media most prominently utilizes all aspects of this trend. The overall theme of social media relies most heavily on networks to be switched and interactive. The World Wide Web is used to connect users with one another, and social media outlets help to facilitate this. Not only does it connect an almost infinite number of users, but those users are also able to interact equally with one another. These connections made via social media can be described as having three important, dependent variables: media attitudes, media choice, and media use (Travino, Webster & Stein, 2000). Each user is likely to make a general subjective evaluation of the media in which he or she is exposed and is thus faced with behavior related to that individual experience (Travino et al., 2000). The user then makes a decision related to the media experience and eventually develops a broad pattern of usage related to the media being used. These variables of media attitudes, choices, and usage are greatly dependent on Cairncross’s ‘improved connections’ trend. The extent to which a social media outlet is switched, interactive, and broadband impacts the users overall media experience and thus, future behaviors related to that experience. Cairncross’s improved connections trend can also be vaguely used to analyze the web content genre of electronic commerce as well. It is expected that sales over the Internet are to be social, interactive, and of the utmost quality. In analyzing both the web content genre of social media as well as electronic commerce, Cairncross’s ‘improved connections’ trend can be used effectively to describe current and upcoming developments.

The third and final communication trend being analyzed is Cairncross’s manufacturers as service providers trend. This trend can best be described as the ability of manufacturers to monitor feedback from consumers regarding their products’ life cycles (Bucy, 2005). Just as the first trend fate of location had an obvious correlation to electronic commerce, so too does the manufacturers as service providers trend. Many people turn to the Internet to see reviews and comments about a product or service before making a purchase. Most manufacturers have websites that allow consumers to view product information as well as make purchases online. Many businesses now rely on social media for much of their promotional aspects. The World Wide Web has enabled these businesses to effectively deliver their messages to consumers regardless of their location. Consumers are susceptible to messages from companies worldwide via social media outlets. Social media also facilitates businesses in reaching their target audiences because there certain are demographic-related patterns apparent in media exposure as a whole (zhao 2013). These websites also generally allow for consumer feedback relating to the company’s products and/or services. Before making a high-involvement purchase of a new car, for example, one may perform extensive research using the feedback provided by others. Not only does this feedback involve the product quality and performance, but it may also include feedback regarding a company’s customer service or business policies. This is where the web content genre of social media is highly incorporated into Cairncross’s manufacturers as service providers trend. Consumers express their opinions on products and services daily via social media networks and can consequently reach thousands of a business or manufacturer’s potential customers in a day. For example, a customer may be very unhappy with a local restaurant’s customer service, and then proceeds to notify others through the social network known as Facebook. Not only is the restaurant likely to be notified of the customer’s negative feedback, but all of the Facebook user’s Internet friends are likely to view this post as well. Accordingly, Cairncross’s manufacturers as service providers trend accurately describes the current and upcoming developments in the web content genres of electronic commerce as well and social media.

Bucy, E. P. (2005). Living in the Information Age, a New Media Reader. (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Straubhaar, J., LaRose, R., & Davenport, L. (2013). Media Now: Understanding Media, Culture,and Technology. (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Travino, L. K., Webster J. & Stein E.W. (2000). Making Connections: Complementary Influences on Communication Media Choices Attitudes, and Use. Organization Science.11(2), INFORMS.

 

Huang, Z., Zhao Huang, & Morad Benyoucef. (07/01/2013). Electronic commerce research and applications: From e-commerce to social commerce: A close look at design features Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.elerap.2012.12.003

http://www.sciencedirect.com.proxy.lib.fsu.edu/science/article/pii/S156742231200124X

 

Media Influences on Terroristic Activity

With the help of media and social media terrorism recruitment have been high especially for US citizens. These citizens feel betrayal by the government and look for ways to feel validated. That’s when they search for things to feel justified for their feelings against the government. These emotions are then expressed through plans of bombings and suicide bombings like the most recent attacks in America.

Terroristic groups use the Internet to help their propaganda and other recruiting methods. Many terrorist groups use the Internet as a tool for recruiting mainly targeting young people. They use infamous sites such as YouTube, Twitter and Facebook. These websites help them gain insight and recruit and almost advertise the things they think are right. As I researched terrorist groups and ISIS on YouTube there were a plethora of videos of terrorist members illustrating things they are trained on and how you can do some of the things like them. These videos are duplicates of the original because officials remove them, but these unoriginal videos are still being viewed over one million times. This is very alarming because people want to learn more about the training preparation of terroristic groups. These groups also use social media platforms to acknowledge their bombings and give explanations for them. What is sickening is the many people that follow them on their social media accounts. With the help of social media, terrorist groups can find like-minded individuals who idealize there thinking basically a way for radicalization and recruiting. These outlets are becoming a venue for perpetuating radicalization among the groups of recruits or interested spectators. These people who engage in researching and finding what terroristic groups do as intriguing are most likely looking for a way to fit in society. These people look for ways that their thinking can be justified and they find like-minded individuals just like them and they share a common stance. These groups and websites are really intensifying ones identity to make them feel better about the way they are feeling.  “The widespread use of technology propagates the persistent terrorist message to attack U.S. interests whether in the homeland or abroad. Many foreign terrorist organizations use various digital communication platforms in an effort to reach individuals they believe may be susceptible and sympathetic to the message,” the FBI official said in his opening testimony (Grubs, 2016).” Through my research I concluded that these terrorist are transforming with time. As technology progress so are there technology propagates because it is convenient for and being how widespread the Internet is the more allies they can acquire. There are many terrorist groups and have been for many years, but with the help of technology; these groups thoroughly explain in websites their primary goals and find some similarities between each other ultimately acquiring allies. Now the Internet and websites will be the blame for the spread of terrorist propagandas. Looking more in depth, there is not an isolated item to be at blame for the spread of terrorism. The Internet is helping with the spread of terroristic information but them using different website platforms add to the spread of this information. These websites try their best to censor terroristic information but they cannot catch every terroristic thing that is being put on their sites especially regarding social media.

With the help of media and social media terrorism recruitment have been high especially for US citizens. These citizens feel betrayal by the government and look for ways to feel validated. That’s when they search for things to feel justified for their feelings against the government. These emotions are then expressed through plans of bombings and suicide bombings like the most recent attacks in America. The most recent attacks on America are from American citizens with terroristic ties. These ties are mostly through Internet communication. Terrorists have developed sophisticated encryption tools and creative techniques that make the Internet an efficient and relatively secure means of correspondence. These include steganography, a technique used to hide messages in graphic files, and “dead dropping”: transmitting information through saved email drafts in an online email account accessible to anyone with the password. Now terrorism is more than just bombings across countries but now they are cyberterrorism. “Cyberterrorism is defined as the use of the Internet as a vehicle through which to launch an attack (Kohlman, 2006).” Terrorist can now hack into security systems and distribute computer viruses. Terrorist uploading propaganda videos sometimes go through websites where the videos can be posted anonymously. But nothing done by computer can be anonymous as everything can be traced back via Internet protocol address. An Internet protocol address is a unique string of numbers separated by periods that identifies each computer using the Internet Protocol to communicate over a network. Every computer have an unique IP address so nothing no one does can not be tracked back. In chat rooms, terrorist use that medium to discuss religions views and not only to recruit but also step-by-step processes on how to construct bombs and suicide vest.

I do believe the government should heighten online security measures. Different online media services try to control the terroristic actions being done with the use of their platform but I think the government should help them. The government implementing some form of action against these terrorists would help decrease the spread of terroristic activity by United States citizens who feel the need to relate to groups like ISIS or Al-Queada. “When speech is protected, there is a high standard the government must meet in order to justify censorship. Especially in countries like the U.S., where freedom of speech is domestically protected, screening and removal of offensive social media raises complicated issues over what should and should not be censored” (Wu, 2015, p.15).

 

Grubs, Alex. Islamic State Most Adept Terrorist Group at Online Recruiting. 07 July 2016. 10 December 2016 .

Wu, P. (2015). Impossible to regulate? social media, terrorists, and the role for the U.N. Chicago Journal of International Law, 16(1), 281-311. Retrieved from https://login.proxy.lib.fsu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1696228641?accountid=4840

 

 

Via: OutLoud Media